Introduction to Computer
What is the computer?
An electronic computer is used to input data processing system, through the CPU to obtain useful information, are using programs that are known to the computer.
Computer types: --
1. Computers Network (Network), a group of computers linked with each other and more users can work.
2. PC (Personal Computer) is used for one person only.
What is the computer?
The term (computer) can be explained in several ways, namely:
v defined as an electronic computer.
Detailed explanation of computer science from modern science.
Detailed explanation of the personal computer (PC).
(1) as an electronic computer
An electronic computer is able to carry out a very large number of mathematical and logical operations in record time too (millions of operations at a fraction of a second), and differs from the human mind (which the author) that the indefatigable and determined not to despair.
(2) Computer science
Computer science is divided into two main themes:
Hardware Equipment Division
Section Software programs
First: Equipment Division (Hardware):
Equipment is significant components of the computer that can be touched by hand electronic components, electrical or mechanical.
And also can be divided into four sections:
The introduction of devices (Input):
Used in data entry and various forms of information to the computer, a basic introduction (Standard Input) is the keyboard (Keyboard) and is used to enter orders, texts and the introduction of other devices are used to introduce other forms of data such as scanner Scanner for the introduction of images, digital camera to make pictures and movies , For the introduction of pen-based signatures and the line of manual mapping, the Plotter to introduce three-dimensional figures, a microphone for the introduction of the votes and music, mouse Mouse for the introduction of orders through the click or drag and dumping (Drag & Drop), Joystick control wand used to control the games and programs used to send orders Games of the programs on the image of electric pulses parallel.
Processing equipment (Processing):
A treatment is the main central processing unit (CPU) for a short term (Central Processing Unit) is the central processing unit as a reason for humans, where most of the computer infrastructure, such as the ownership of the data and identify memory addresses to be reading or writing and determining which units Or data precedence in implementation and other operations, which is divided CPU into two main sections:
Control unit (CU) Control Unit: It is responsible for all the organs of control and data computer.
The unit of account and logic (ALU) Arithmetic & Logic Unit: It is responsible for the performance and implementation of all mathematical and logical operations within the computer.
(Calculations are combined (+) and subtraction (-) and division (/) and battery .
(*). (Operations logical) <,>, = <, =>, =, NOT, OR, AND, XOR (
Storage devices (Storage Device):
And will store the data and information permanently or temporarily divided into two parts:
A. Internal storage: the data storage within the computer itself is divided into two sections:
1. Permanent storage procedure: either a hard disk storage in the Hard Disk on the image of electromagnetic or permanent ROM memory in the form of electrical impulses.
2. Storage provisional rules of procedure: is in the cache RAM, where the computer inventory of all the contents of the RAM as soon as electricity was cut off from organ, must be completely empty of RAM when you start your computer.
B. External storage: The conservation data Floppy diskettes or CD-CDROM or video Tape or hard disk or Zip Drive hard drive conservation outside the computer Hard Disk.
1. Directed finished (Output Device):
Used to get data from the computer to the user in various forms of data.
O devices: the screen and directed by statute, called the Standard Output is used to get data on a visual image, using headphones to get the data in the form of audible sound, the printer uses to get data on paper and can print through research, books and envelopes, envelopes, cards and many types of securities in different forms.
II: Programs (Software):
Programs are part of the intangible world of computers, which can not be touched by hand is a million electrical signals and magnetic spots, the computer to transfer data to or watch audio so users can understand and take advantage of them.
The software is divided into three main sections are:
1. Operating systems (Operation System)
Programs operating systems are the most important type of programs and rely on the rest of its software and operating system without a computer can not work, nor can any of the software work without operating system, the system is operational link between the user and the computer, which contains system Operating on all orders that enable the user to open the establishment and maintenance of files and programs for the design and so on.
Systems is one of the months following operating systems:
disk operating system (MS DOS) Microsoft Disk Operation System
Operating systems of the strongest and most stable and widespread.
Windows 95 operating system
The boom in the world of operating systems and major turning-point text of the environment to the graphical environment.
operating systems Windows NT, Windows 98, Windows 2000 misfortune upgraded versions of the Windows 95.
There are many other operating systems, multi-such as UNIX, LINUX, OS / 2, Novel NetWare.
1. Programming languages (Programming Languages):
Programming languages is divided as to the levels of development:
language is the mother tongue of all programming languages.
assembly language development and a simplification of the language of the machine.
High languages are closer to human language (such as Pesek, Fortran, Pascal, C, COBOL, etc.).
language is very high for the working languages of the graphical environments and are easily and power (such Vijul Pesek, Delphi, Vijul C + +, Fox Pro Vijul .... etc.).
2. Applications (Applications):
Applications are the widest door to enter the world of computers, these programs are designed by people and companies, these programs are very large and very capable to meet the wishes of the user.
Programs are used in applications serving all areas of life (such as medicine, engineering, accounting and economics and science programs and games for children and many, many others).
We have concluded from the definition of computer science from modern science and proceed to the second section of the definition of the personal computer as a.
(3). Personal computer (PC):
When we look at any computer extraordinary phenomenon note that the things which are:
¨ system unit (CPU).
This would be a computer after the completion of collecting and delivering it to ordinary users.
Q: But when the maintenance engineer compile computer wish it needs the following things:
¨ Fund Case.
¨ motherboard Motherboard.
¨ processor + fan Processor + Fan.
¨ memory RAM.
¨ cards Cards (Fax modem, Sound, VGA).
¨ Hard disk Hard Disk.
¨ Operator Flexible disk Floppy Drive Disk.
¨ CD player laser CDROM Drive.
¨ Keyboard Keyboard.
¨ Mouse Mouse.
¨ Speakers Speakers.
¨ Screen Monitor.
¨ Printer Printer.
1. Fund Case:
Case with ATX Power Supply Case with AT Power Supply
Is inside the container, which contains most of the most important computer parts, and exterior designs Ll Case is a taste of the many used as the external appearance Ll Case attractive when used to pay the purchase price, and there are at the forefront of the Case of a group home for the delivery of wire motherboard with the following sections of the Case:
(Note: Each service is written by the end of plastic name)
¨ Power to connect with key Power SW.
¨ Reset to connect with key SW Reset.
¨ SPK (Speaker) to connect the receiver with internal Ll Case.
¨ Power LED to connect with the green light at the forefront of the Case, which indicates that the power system.
¨ HD LED to connect with the red light at the forefront of Case which demonstrates the work of the Hard Disk (reading or writing).
¨ Turbo to connect with the key organs in the old Turbo.
¨ Turbo LED to connect with the orange light which indicates a Turbo button in any action ON the speed limit.
¨ Case also contains the buttocks in the energy unit Power Supply.